Taking Learning Seriously is a resource to help teachers understand how students learn and use that knowledge to inform their teaching. Whenever we read student papers, grade exams or listen to student discussions, we become acutely aware of gaps in their learning. Sometimes the problem has an obvious cause–students did not study enough. But more often than not, the causes are not obvious. Instructors and students do their best and yet learning gaps still exist. If we want to improve student learning, we need to probe the reasons why students stumble, why some concepts are difficult, how misconceptions form and interfere with new learning, and more.